วิธี ฝาก เงิน w88 มือ ถือ _ดาวน์โหลดw88 _w88thai เว็บเดิมพัน ออนไลน์
Canada Research Chair
Contact InformationOffice: Room 1409, SSC
Tel: 519 661-2111, 86944
Fax: 519 661-3750
E-mail: iluginaa@ W88 www.jaketonepiece.com
Personal Web Page
My broad area of research interest includes environment and health, population health and GIS applications in health. My work involves an integrative understanding of the broad determinants of the population health and the evidence of environment and health linkages. I am specifically interested in the human health impacts of environmental exposure and recent work in this area involves examining the links between ambient air quality and health in Southwestern Ontario. I am also involved in HIV/AIDS research in Africa, specifically Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria.
Mkandawire, P., Dixon, J., Luginaah, I., Armah, F. and Arku, G. (2014) 'At risk by fact of birth': Perceptions and concerns about medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in Northern Malawi. Health, Risk & Society, 16(4): 295-307.
Armah, F. A., Quansah, R. and Luginaah, I. (2014) A Systematic Review of Heavy Metals of Anthropogenic Origin in Environmental Media and Biota in the Context of Gold Mining in Ghana. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014: 37
Dixon, J., Luginaah, I., and Mkandawire, P. (2014) The National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana's Upper West Region: A Gendered Perspective of Insurance Acquisition in a Resource-Poor Setting. Social Science & Medicine, 122: 103-112.
Boateng, G. O., Kuuire, V. Z., Ung, M., Amoyaw, J. A., Armah, F. A. and Luginaah, I. (2014) Women's Empowerment in the Context of Millennium Development Goal 3: A Case Study of Married Women in Ghana. Social Indicators Research, 115(1): 137-158.
Ung, M. Boateng, G. O., Armah, F. A., Amoyaw, J. A., Luginaah, I. and Kuuire, V. (2014) Negotiation for safer sex among married women in Cambodia: The role of women's autonomy. Journal of Biosocial Science, 46(1): 90-106.
Armah, F. A., Luginaah, I., Yengoh. G. T., Taabazuing, J. and Yawson, D. O. (2014) Managing Conflicts in Natural Resources Management in Ghana: Unmasking a Messy Policy Problem. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 57(11) 1724-1745.
Mkandawire, P., Luginaah, I. and Baxter, J. (2014) Growing up alone: Vulnerability of adolescent orphans to HIV/AIDS in Northern Malawi. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 39(1): 128-139.
Gorey, K. M., Haji-Jama, S., Bartfay. E., Luginaah. I. N., Wright, F. C. and Kanjeekal S. M. (2014) Lack of access to chemotherapy for colon cancer: Multiplicative disadvantage of being poor, inadequately insured and African American. BMC Health Services Research, 14: 133.
Dixon, J., Tenkorang, E.Y., Luginaah, I., Kuuire, V.Z. and Boateng, G.O. (2014) National health insurance scheme enrolment and antenatal care among women in Ghana: is there any relationship? Tropical Medicine and International Health, 19 (1) 98-106.
Edumadze, J. E., Tenkorang, E. Y., Armah F. A., Luginaah, I., Edumadze, G. E. (2013) The electronic waste mess in Ghana: awareness and pro-environmental behaviour among university students. Applied Environmental Education & Communication, 12(4): 224-234.
Kuuire, V., Mkandawire, P., Arku, G. and Luginaah, I. (2013) Abandoning' farms in search of food: Food remittance and household food security in Ghana. African Geographical Review, 32(2): 125-139.
Armah, F.A., Luginaah, I.N., Odoi, J.O. (2013) Artisanal small-scale gold mining and mercury pollution in Ghana: A critical examination of a messy minerals and gold mining policy debate. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 3(4): 381-390.
Dixon, J., Tenkorang, E.Y. and Luginaah, I. (2013) Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme: A National Level Investigation of Member Perception of Service Provision. Revisions: BMC International Health & Human Rights, 13:35.
Oiamo, T. H. and Luginaah, I. N. (2013) Extricating sex and gender in air pollution research: a community-based study on cardinal symptoms of exposure. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 10: 3801-3817.
Gorey, K.M., Luginaah, I. N., Holowaty, E. J., Zou, G., Hamm, C., and Balagurusamy, M. K. (2013) Mediation of the Effects of Living in Extremely Poor Neighborhoods by Health Insurance: Breast Cancer Care and Survival in California, 1996 to 2011. International Journal for Equity in Health, 12, 6.
Mkandawire, P., Luginaah, I., Dixon, J., Armah, F. A. and Arku, G. (2013) Circumcision Status and time to first sex among never-married young men in Malawi: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Survey. AIDS and Behavior, 17: 2123-2135.
Haji-Jama, S., Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Balagurusamy, M. K. and Hamm, C. (2013). Health Insurance Mediation of the Mexican American Non-Hispanic White Disparity on Early Breast Cancer Diagnosis. SpringerPlus, 2: 285
Mkandawire, P., Richmond, C., Dixon, J., Luginaah, I. and Tobias, J. (2013). Hepatitis B in Ghana’s Upper West Region: A Hidden Disease In Need of National Policy Attention. Health & Place, 23: 89–96.
Tobias, J., Richmond, C. and Luginaah, I. (2013) CBPR With Anishinabe Communities: Producing Respectful and Reciprocal Research. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, 8(2):129-140.
Armah, F.A., Luginaah, I.N., Taabazuing, J. and Odoi, J. O. (2013) 'Artisanal Gold Mining and Surface Water Pollution in Ghana: Have the Foreign Invaders Come to Stay' Environmental Justice 6(3): 94-102
Atari, O., Luginaah, I., Gorey, K., Xu, I. and Fung, K. (2013) 'Associations between self-reported odour annoyance and volatile organic compounds in "Chemical Valley", Sarnia, Ontario' Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 185(6): 4537-4539
Obiri, S., Cobbinah, S.J., Armah, F.A. and Luginaah, I. (2013) 'Assessment of Cancer and Non-Cancer Health Risks from Exposure to PAHs in Street Dust in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana' Journal of Environmental Science and Health: Part A 48(4): 408-416
Mkandawire, P., Tenkorang, E. and Luginaah, I. (2013) 'Orphanhood and Time to First Sex Among Adolescents in Northern Malawi' AIDS & Behaviour 17(3): 939-950.
Oiamo, T. H., Luginaah, I. N., Buzzelli, M., Tang, K., Xu, X., Brook, J. and Johnson, M. (2012) 'Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Nitrogen Dioxide in London, Ontario' Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 62(11): 1335-1345
Taabazuing, J., Armah, F., Dixon, J. and Luginaah, I. (2012) The relationship between traditional authorities and decentralized structures in Ghana: Conflicting roles or a struggle for power and legitimacy. International Journal of Development and Conflict, 2(3).
Brophy, J.T., Keith, M.M., Watterson, A., Park, R., Gilbertson, M., Maticka-Tyndale, E., Beck, M., Abu-Zahra, H., Schneider, K., Reinhartz, A., DeMatteo, R., and Luginaah, I. (2012) 'Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case-control study' Environmental Health 11: 87
Armah, F. A., Luginaah, I. and Ason, B. (2012) 'Water Quality Index of the Tarkwa Goldmining Area in Ghana' Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies 11(2): 1-14
Gorey, K.M., Luginaah, I.N., Holowaty, E J., Zou, G., Hamm, C., Bartfay, E., Kanjeekal, S.M., Balagurusamy, M., Sandus H-J. and Wright, F. (2012) 'Effects of Being Uninsured or Underinsured and Living in Extremely Poor Neighborhoods on Colon Cancer Care and Survival in California: Historical Cohort Analysis, 1996—2011' BMC Public Health 12: 897
Taabazuing, J., Luginaah, I.N., Djietror, G. and Otiso, K.M. (2012) 'Mining, Conflicts and Livelihood Struggles in a Dysfunctional Policy Environment: The Case of Wassa West District, Ghana' African Geographical Review 31(1): 33-49
Arku, G., Luginaah, I. and Mkandawire, P. (2012) “You Either Pay More Advance Rent or You Move”: Landlord and Tenants Dilemmas in Low-income Housing Market in Accra, Ghana. Urban Studies, 49(14): 3177-3193.
Luginaah, I.N. and Armah, F.A. (2012) 'Non-Timber Forest Products and Human Health in the Context of Environmental Change' Human Evolution/Global Ethics 27(1-3): 103-109
Luginaah, I.N., Gorey, K.M., Tang, K., Oiamo, T., Holowaty, E.J., Hamm, C. and Wright, F.A. (2012) 'Geographical Analysis of Breast Cancer Clustering in Southern Ontario: Generating Hypotheses on Environmental Influences' International Journal of Environmental Research 22(3): 232-248
Armah, F.A., Ason, B., Luginaah, I. . and Essandoh, P.K. (2012) 'Characterization of macro-benthic fauna for ecological health status of the Fosu and Benya lagoons in coastal Ghana' Journal of Ecology and Field Biology 35(4): 1-11
Arnold, R., Maticka-Tyndale, E., Tenkorang, E.Y., Holland, D., Gaspard, A., Luginaah, I. and the HP4RY Team (2012) 'Evaluation of School- and Community-Based HIV Prevention Interventions with Junior Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria' African Journal of Reproductive Health 16(2): 103-125
Whaling, M., Luginaah, I., Reid, G., Hekmat, S., Thind, A., Mwanga, J. and Changalucha, J. (2012) ‘Perceptions of Probiotics for Health and Nutrition in the Context of HIV/AIDS in Mwanza, Tanzania.’ Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 16(2): 103-125
Armah, F.A., Luginaah, I.N. and Obiri, S. (2012) 'Assessing Environmental Exposure and Health Impacts of Gold Mining in Ghana' Toxicology & Environmental Chemistry 94(4): 786-798
Armah, F., Luginaah, I., Kuitunen, M. and Mkandawire, P. (2012) 'Ecological Health Status of the Fosu Lagoon, Southern Ghana II: Environmental and Human Health Risk Assessment' Ecosystem & Ecography 2: 1
Armah, F., Kuitunen, M., Luginaah, I. and Mkandawire, P. (2012) 'Non Occupational Health Risk Assessment from Exposure to Chemical Contaminants in the Gold Mining Environment of Tarkwa, Ghana' Trends in Applied Sciences Research 7(3): 181-185
Mkandawire, P., Luginaah, I. and Tobias, J. (2011) ‘Landscapes of economic deprivation and locally distilled liquor (kachasu): An emerging milieu of HIV/AIDS risk in urban Northern Malawi’ Environment and Planning, A. 43(10): 2384–2398
Dixon, J., Tenkorang, E. and Luginaah, I. (2011) 'Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme: Helping the Poor or Leaving them Behind?' Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 29: 1102-1115
Miller, L., Xu, X., Wheeler, A., Atari, D.O., Grgicak-Mannion, A. and Luginaah, I.N. (2011) 'Spatial variability and application of ratios between BTEX in two Canadian cities' The Scientific World 11: 2536-2549
Odoi, J.O., Armah, F.A., Luginaah, I. (2011) 'Assessment of spatial variability of heavy metals in soils under the influence of soap and detergent waste water discharge' International Journal of Research and Reviews in Applied Sciences 9(2): 322-329
Oiamo, T. H., Luginaah, I. N., Atari, D. O. and Gorey, M. K. (2011) ‘Air pollution and general practitioner access and utilization: A population based study in Sarnia, ‘Chemical Valley,’ Ontario.’ Environmental Health, 10: 71
Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Bartfay, E., Fung, K. Y., Holowaty, E. J., Wright, F., Hamm, C. and Kanjeekal, S. M. (2011) Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Colon Cancer Treatment Accessibility and Survival in Toronto, Ontario, and San Francisco, California, 1996-2006. American Journal of Public Health, 101: 112-119.
Arku, G., Luginaah, I. N., Mkandawire, P., Baiden, P. and Asiedu, A. B. (2011) ‘Housing and Health in three Contrasting Neighbourhoods in Accra, Ghana.’ Social Science and Medicine, 72: 1864-1872
Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Hamm, C., Balagurusamy, M., & Holowaty, E. J. (2011) ‘Physician supplies and breast cancer care in Ontario and California, 1998 to 2006.’ Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine, 16(2): 47-54
Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Bartfay, E., Fung, K. Y., Holowaty, E. J., Wright, F. C., Hamm, C., Kanjeekal, S. M. & Balagurusamy, M. (2011) ‘Association of physician supply with breast cancer survival in Ontario.’ Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 56: 523-531
Baiden, P., Arku, G., Luginaah, I. and Asiedu, A. B. (2011) ‘An Assessment of Residents' Housing Satisfaction and Coping in Accra, Ghana.’ Journal of Public Health, 19(1): 29-37
Atari, O., Luginaah, I. and Baxter, J. (2011) “This is the mess that we are living in”: Residents everyday life experiences of living in a stigmatized community.’ GeoJournal, 76: 483-500
Mkandawire, P., Luginaah, I. and Bezner-Kerr, R. (2010) ‘Deadly Divide: Malawi's Policy Debate on HIV/AIDS and Condoms.’ Policy Sciences, 44(1): 81-102
Gorey, K. M., Fung, K. Y., Luginaah, I. N., Holowaty, E. J. and Hamm, C. (2010) ‘Income and Long-Term Breast Cancer Survival: Comparisons of Vulnerable Urban Places in Ontario and California.’ The Breast Journal, 16: 416-419
Luginaah, I. Arku, G. and Baiden, P. (2010) ‘Housing and Health in Ghana: The Psychosocial Health Impacts of Renting a Home.’ International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 7: 525-545
Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Hamm, C., Fung, K. Y. and Holowaty, E. J. (2010) ‘Breast Cancer Care in the United States and Canada: Ecological Comparisons of Relatively Impoverished and Affluent Urban Neighborhoods.’ Health & Place 16: 156–163
Smith, K., Luginaah, I. and Lockridge, A. (2010) ‘‘Contaminated’ Therapeutic Landscape: The Case of the Aamjiwnaang First Nation in Ontario, Canada.’ Geography Research Forum, 30: 83-102
Tomkpins, J. W., Luginaah, I. N., Booth, G. L. and Harris, S. B. (2010) ‘The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management.’ International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 7: 2407-2422
Luginaah, I., Smith, K. and Lockridge, A. (2010) ‘Surrounded by Chemical Valley and “Living in a Bubble”: Health Impacts and Coping Strategies of the Aamjiwnaang First Nation, Ontario.’ Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 53(3): 353-370
Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Fung, K. Y., Bartfay, E., Hamm, C., Wright, F. C., Balagurusamy, M., & Holowaty, E. J. (2010) ‘Association of physician supply with breast cancer survival in Ontario.’ Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 23(1): 104-108
Atari, O., Luginaah, I. and Fung, K. (2009) ‘The Relationship between Odour Annoyance Scores and Modelled Ambient Air Pollution in Sarnia, “Chemical Valley”, Ontario.’ International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 6: 2655-2675
Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Holowaty, E. J., Fung, K. Y., and Hamm, C. (2009) ‘Wait times for initial surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in Canada and the United States: Evidence of greater socioeconomic inequity in America.’ Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 32 (3): E239-E249
Atari, O.and Luginaah, I. (2009) ‘Assessing the distribution of volatile organic compounds using land use regression in Sarnia, "Chemical Valley", Ontario, Canada.’ Environmental Health 8: 16
Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Holowaty, E. J., Fung, K. Y. and Hamm, C. (2009) 'Association of Physician Supplies with Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis and Survival in Ontario, 1988 to 2006' Cancer 115: 3563-3570
Luginaah, I. N. (2009) 'Health Geography in Canada: Where are we headed?' The Canadian Geographer 53(1): 89-97
Miller, L., Xu, X. and Luginaah, I. (2009) 'Spatial Variability of VOC Concentrations in Sarnia, Ontario, Canada' Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 72: 1-15
An, L., Nkurunziza, S., Fung, K. Y., Krewski, D. and Luginaah, I. (2009) 'Shrinkage Estimation in General Linear Models' Computational Statistics & Data Analysis 53(7): 2537-2549
Gorey, K. M., Luginaah, I. N., Holowaty, E. J., Fung, K.Y. and Hamm, C. (2009) 'Breast cancer survival in Ontario and California, 1998 to 2006: Socioeconomic inequality remains much greater in America' Annals of Epidemiology 19: 121-124
Gorey, K.M., Luginaah, I.N., Schwartz, K.L., Fung, K.Y., Balagurusamy, M., Bartfay, E., Wright, F.C., Anucha, U. and Parsons R.R. (2009) 'Increased racial group breast cancer care and survival differentials in America: Historical evidence consistent with a health insurance hypothesis, 1975 to 2001' Breast Cancer Research Treatment 113: 595-600
Atari, O., Luginaah, I., Xu, I. and Fung, K. (2008) 'Spatial Variability of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Sarnia, “Chemical Valley”, Ontario, Canada' Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 71: 1572-1581
Luginaah, I.N. (2008) 'Local Gin (Akpeteshie) and HIV/AIDS in the Upper West Region of Ghana: The need for preventive health policy' Health & Place, 14: 804-814
Gorey, K.M., Fung, K.Y., Luginaah, I.N., Bartfay, E., Hamm, C., Wright, F.C., Balagurusamy, M., Mohammad, A., Holowaty, E. and Tang, K.X. (2008) 'Cancer survival in Ontario, 1986 to 2003: Evidence of equitable advances across most diverse urban and rural places' Canadian Journal of Public Health, 99(1): 12-16
Chapters in Books
Luginaah, I.N., Oiamo, T., Armah, F.A. (2013) 'Environmental Health Geography' in The Wiley-Blackwell Encylopedia of Health, Illness, Behavior, and Society.
Luginaah, I.N., Weis, T., Galaa, S., Nkrumah, M.K., Bezner-Kerr, R. and Bagah, D. (2009) 'Environment, Migration, and Food Security in the Upper West Region of Ghana' in Environment and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Managing an Emerging Crisis ed I.N. Luginaah and E.K. Yanful (Springer: Netherlands) 25-38
W88Supervised Graduate Students and Theses Titles
|K. Atuoye||Current||Large-scale Land Acquisitionsin Tazania: Qualifying the Food Security and Human Health Impacts|
|M. Kansanga||Current||Environment and health|
|D. Kpienbaareh||Current||Application or remote sensing and GIS to food security studies|
|R. Ragetlie||Current||Food security and gender in Benin|
|Current||Gender, Agriculture, Food, Ghana|
|S. Mason||2017||Emerging Views of the Rural Landscape in Ontario: A Case Study of the Siting of a Regional Biosolid Processing Facility in Southgate Township|
|2017||Poverty, Unemployment, and Youth Empowerment in Africa Mining Communities: The Case of Ghana|
|E. Andoniou||2016||Probiotic Yoghourt for Health, Nutrition and Women's Empowerment in Kenya: A Community-based Approach|
|M. Ung||2016||Assessing Climate Change Adaptation and Health in Coastal Cambodia|
|F. Armah||2015||Environment and human health risk assessment in Tanzania|
|2015||Impacts of Transnational Activities on Immigrant Integration: A look at Transnational Activities and Housing Consumption Patterns in Canada|
|2015||"We are the Land": Researching Environmental Repossession with Anishinaabe Elders|
|2014||Environment and Health Impacts in the Vicinity of Major Traffic Pollution: A Comparison of Relocates and Non-Relocates|
|J. Dixon||2014||The Impact of Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme in the Upper West Region: Helping the Poor or Leaving them Behind|
|P. Mkandawire||2011||Vulnerability of Adolescent Orphans in HIV Infection in Malawi|
|O. Atari||2009||Community Health Study in Sarnia, Chemical Valley, Ontario|
|F. Anfaara||Current||Health Geography|
|D. Kosmack||Current||Policy development; health outcomes|
|J. Baada||2017||A gendered perspective on the lived experiences of migrant women farmers in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana|
|J. Braimah||2017||CHPS and Maternal Health in U/WR|
|C. Thayer||2017||Exploring women's perceptions and experiences of 'home' as a place of birth in London, Ontario|
|2016||Environment and Health Perceptions in the Vicinity of Surface Mining Concessions in the Upper West Region of Ghana|
|K. Atuoye||2015||Relationship between Household Food Insecurity and Health in the Upper West Region of Ghana|
|E. Eyles||2015||An economic and locational analysis of probiotic yogurt kitchens in Mwanza, Tanzania|
|J. Kangmennaang||2015||Impact of Agroecology Adoption, Migration and Remittance Receipt on Household Welfare|
|G. Tuyisenge||2015||Mothers’ Perceptions and Experiences of Accessing Maternal Health Care : Exploring the Role of Community Health Workers and Continuing Professional Development in Rwanda|
|A. Rishworth||2014||Women's navigation of reproductive care in the context of Ghana's National Health|
|2011||Food Security Situation of Migrant Farmers in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana|
|2010||Embodied political ecologies of health: Examining the relationship between alcohol misuse and hepatitis in the Upper West Region of Ghana|
|R. Wasley||2009||HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Ukraine: Examining the Attitudes and Perceptions of State Orphans in Internaty|
|J. Howson||2009||Socioeconomic determinants of health and diabetes mellitus: Understanding relationships at the neighbourhood level in London, Canada|
|M. Whaling||2008||Assessing community perceptions of the likely impact of a probiotic yogurt project on community relations and health in Mahina District, Mwanza Tanzania|
|B. Curry||2008||Geographies of Infant Feeding Decisions|
|K. Smith||2006||Contaminated Therapeutic Landscape: Perceptions of the Aamjiwnaang First Nations|
|T. Landry||2004||Community strategies for HIV/AIDS care and support in Nyanza, Kenya (University of Windsor)|
|J. Bigirimana||Current||Community, Maternal and Mental health|
|I. Konkor||Current||Housing and urbanization|
|J. Tjhin||Current||A Geographical Analysis of Breast Cancer in Southern Ontario|
|H. Woods||2016||The Contribution of Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) to Community Sustainability and Health in the Upper West Region of Ghana|
|2014||Agricultural Interventions as a Means to Food Security: Experiences of HIV/AIDS affected Household|
|S. Mason||2013||Upgrade from Master's Program to PhD Program|
|2013||Assessing the Impact of Nutrition Education on Gender Roles and Child Care in Northern Malawi|
|T. Oiamo||2011||Upgrade from Master's Program to PhD Program|
|2010||Embodied political ecologies of health: Examining the relationship between alcohol misuse and hepatitis in the Upper West Region of Ghana|
|E. Andoniou||2007||Predictors of sexual behaviour change among men in the context of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Nigeria|
|A. Khurshid||2007||Perceived health effects of a Chemical Valley: a perusal of Sarnia, Ontario|
|C. Wills||2003||Association of ambient air pollution levels with respiratory hospitalization in Windsor, Ontario
University of Windsor
|Y. Li||2002||Association between variations in newborn length of stay and readmission rate in the 49 counties of Ontario
University of Windsor
GEO 3431 - Geography of Health and Health Care
GEO 9107 - Environment and Health
GEO 9300 - Advanced Studies in Environment, Development & Health